Part 1,

ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF TOXIGENIC FUNGI WHICH SPREAD IN THE DIFFERENT BIOTOPES OF AZERBAIJAN
Konul Bakshaliyeva, Sevda Muradova, Tarana Abdullayeva, Emilya Sefereliyeva, Panah Muradov.
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

İn the curried out of research were studied ecophysiology characteristics of toxigenic fungi species which spread in the different ecosistems of Azerbaijan. It was clear that, from the registered toxigenic fungi 9,5% belong to the hydrophilices, 55,3% to the xerophilous, 35,2% to the mesophylles, but by attitude to the temperature 89,9% of them belong to the mesophylles, 10,1% to the thermophilic. Acidity between 4,9-6,0 was considered optimal for the growth of fungi but among of them met alcotolerants such as A.fumigatus, Mucor corymbifer. In addition, was determined that, among of registered toxigenic fungi Mucor himelis, M.cornealis and Rhizomucor miehei characterized as microaerophiles to the relation of oxygen.


Author Keywords:different ecosystems, toksigen fungi, growth, abiotic factors.
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 9
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Coordinates Positioning and Precision Analysis of Sample Trees Based on Intelligent Forest Survey Calculator
Jincheng Liu, Zhongke Feng*, Abdul Mannan
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

Determining the location of sample trees has great significance for extracting forest parameters and realizing well-targeted forestry operation. This paper introduces a new portable, high-precision electronic instrument for forest survey named as intelligent forest-survey calculator. This paper explains principles of and methods for surveying locations of sample trees in fixed places during the forestry investigation. The instrument sets up starting site on the approximate central position of fixed sample plot and observes different sites according to the distribution and density of sample trees. It can also find out coordinates of sample trees through integrated angle and distance measurement on basis of the BLE Bluetooth data transfer. The measurement precision is subject to the influence of both measurement stability of the instrument and environment changes of the investigation area. With Beijing SongShan National Nature Reserve being an experiment area, an experiment is designed in this area to verify and analyze interior and exterior adherence accuracy of 3D coordinates of intelligent forest-survey calculator. The outcome reveals the deviation is 0.1372m in practical plane measurement and 0.3724m in altitude measurement. The measurement accuracy can meet requirements of forestry investigation.


Author Keywords:Forestry, intelligent forest-survey calculator, locations of sample trees, 3D coordinates, accuracy analysis.
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 13
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Water of the Inegol Plain, Turkey, Using Spatiotemporal Variation Characteristics
Serpil Mentese, Sermin Tagil
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

The availability of safe water is as important as the water crisis, due to various types of pollutants in water. The existence or availability of water does not necessarily mean that it is safe. Water pollution studies are important for determining the effects on aquatic life and human health, which are significant current issues. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the concentrations and to characterize the spatial distribution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn heavy metals in surface waters of the Inegol Plain in both winter and summer periods. We use ordinary kriging interpolation technique to estimate a variable at an unmeasured location using observed values at nearby locations, and indicator kriging to map the probability of heavy metals to exceed the threshold fixed by the Turkey Water Pollution Control Regulation (SKKY). The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water show substantial seasonal differences in summer and winter in the Inegol Plain. Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations were recorded within the permissible limit sthroughout the plain. However, according to the background value of Cu, Mn and Ni, results show that the water in the area is under high pollution risk from these pollutants, particularly in areas distributed around the industrial areas. It is evident from the study that heavy metal concentrations were higher in water samples in the vicinity of hot water industries and of the Inegol Organized Industrial Zone.


Author Keywords:Heavy Metals, GIS, Inegol Plain, Surface Water Pollution, Spatial Correlation, Spatial Variation
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 15
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Some Higher Order Iterative Methods for Finding Multiple Zeros of Solving Nonlinear Equations
Mohamed. S. M. Bahgat∗ and Mofeda Ahmed Mohamed ∗
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

In this paper, a new family of iterative methods for finding multiple roots of nonlinear equation with unknown\nmultiplicity m. The proposed methods with third, fourth, fifth and eight convergence order have the efficiency\nindices equal to 1.587, 1.414, 1.223 and 1.189 respectively. Its order of convergence for each method is analyzed\nand proved. Results for some numerical examples show the efficiency of the proposed methods.


Author Keywords:Nonlinear equations; Convergence analysis; multiple roots; high-order convergence; efficiency index
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 27
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Combination therapy of intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and local muscle exercise improves upper limb function in post-stroke patients
Gentaro Hashimoto, MD; Masahiro Abo, MD, PhD; Takatoshi Hara, MD; Kentaro Kobayashi, MD; Nobuyuki Sasaki, MD, PhD; Kensuke Taguchi, OT; Kazushige Kobayashi, MD, PhD
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the response to repeated intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), onabotulinumtoxinA, and rehabilitation exercise in poststroke patients with mild, moderate and severe upper limb motor dysfunction, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA). Of the 500 patients who received BoNT-A for the first time between November 2, 2010 and September 26, 2014, 221 received five repeat injections. Of these, the injection was combined with self-administered rehabilitation program for upper limb muscles in 77 patients, who were selected as subjects of this study. Before each of the five injections of BoNT-A, the clinical status was evaluated by the FMA, including the total score of the upper limb and its three subcategory parameters. The average total dose of BoNT-A was 223 U. The combination therapy improved upper limb function especially the more proximal parts in patients severe spasticity (FMA score <20), but not the FMA scores of those with mild spasticity (FMA score ?48). We recommend prioritization of poststroke patients for the combination therapy according to the severity of spasticity. The combination therapy can result in significant improvement of upper limb motor function in patients with severe poststroke upper limb paralysis, especially the proximal part of the upper limb, but such outcome is unlikely in those patients with poststroke mild upper limb paralysis.


Author Keywords:botulinum toxin type A, post-stroke, upper limb hemiparesis, functional improvement
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 15
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Transformational Leadership Style of Principals and School Horticultural Gardening Practices in Nigeria
Angie Ijeoma Oboegbulem (Ph.D)1, Baptista Chinyere Chigbu (M.Ed)1, Chinwe Enyi(Ph.D)1, Ezikanyi Meltus Sunday(Ph.D)2, Evelyn Ijeoma Ezepue (Ph.D)1
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

Exploring the school leadership style of school administrators is essential to improving certain school practices like horticultural gardening. Therefore, the current study investigated the relationship between transformational leadership style of principals and school horticultural gardening practices in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The design of the study was correlation survey design. Seventy-four secondary school principals who were identified as having transformational leadership style through self-report questionnaire and 74 agriculture teachers were purposively selected for the study. The researchers used Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ) and School Horticultural Gardening Questionnaire (SHGQ) to collect data from the participants in their respective schools. The data collected were analysed using linear regression and the results obtained indicated that transformational leadership style of principals relates with school horticultural gardening practices. Based on the findings the researchers recommend that transformational leadership principles, techniques, skills and strategies should be acquired by all school principals in Nigeria and utilize them on developing horticultural gardens. Government should provide the necessary supports, in terms of finance, materials and supervision to ensure that horticultural gardening practices are effective in every secondary school in the country


Author Keywords:Transformational leadership style, principals, school horticultural gardening practices, Nigeria.
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 13
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Exogenous glycinebetaine mitigates cadmium stress in two tobacco genotypes differing in cadmium tolerance.
Xiaoyan He, Weite Zheng,Guoping Zhang, Feibo Wu
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were conducted using Cd-sensitive (cv. Guiyan1) and Cd-tolerant (cv.Yunyan2) tobacco cultivars to study ameliorative effects of exogenous glycinebetaine (GB) upon 5 ?M Cd stress. Foliar spray of GB markedly reduced Cd concentrations in plants, alleviated Cd-induced SPAD value, plant height and root length inhibition, with the mitigation effect being more obvious in Yunyan2. External GB markedly reduced Cd-induced MDA accumulation, induced stomatal closure, ameliorated Cd-induced damages on leaf/root ultrastructure, and increased chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters of Fo, Fm and Fv/Fm in both cultivars and Pn in Yunyan2. Exogenous GB counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients. e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase of SOD and POD activities, but significantly elevated depressed CAT and APX activities. The results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by GB appcation is related to the reduced Cd uptake and MDA accumulation, balanced nutrients and antioxidant enzyme activities, improved PSII and integrated ultrastructure in tobacco plants.


Author Keywords:Cadmium • Glycinebetaine • Photosynthesis • Ultrastructure • Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.)
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 24
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Liver Transplantation and Cytokines Secretion
Jin Joo, Jaemin Lee
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

Primary failure of the liver is associated with the secondary dysfunction of virtually all other organ systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, coagulation and central nervous systems. Furthermore, liver transplantation is a major surgical procedure with accompanying life-threatening haemorrhage, massive transfusion, clamping and unclamping of great vessels and resulting ischaemia–reperfusion injury and cardiovascular instability. Together with underlying liver failure, these events act as stressors and promote the secretion of various cytokines. The aspect of cytokines secretion during liver transplantation surgery, the evidences of association of cytokines concentration with post-transplantation graft survival, a variety of factors that may influence the secretion of cytokines during liver transplantation, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance during the surgery, and the issues of T helper 1 and T helper 2 subset cell signature cytokines secretion and their ratio during liver transplantation surgery are introduced in this review article. As cytokines secretion has clear relationship with post-transplantation clinical outcomes, future study directions for artificially manipulating cytokines secretion is also suggested for better outcomes of the patients.


Author Keywords:Cytokine; Interleukins; Pro-inflammatory; Anti-inflammatory; T lymphocytes, Helper-inducer; Th1-Th2 balance; Liver transplantation
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 22
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

The implication of using dominant hand to perform laryngoscopy: an analysis of the laryngoscopic view and blade-tooth distance
Serin Lee, Jin Joo, Woojoo Yoo, Jaemin Lee
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

Controlling the laryngoscope device requires considerable strength and refinement. Existing laryngoscopes are designed to be handled by the left hand, whereas most healthcare professionals are right-handed. We examined the significance of using dominant hand for laryngoscopy and its clinical applicability. 164 patients for general anesthesia were involved. Laryngoscopy was performed twice for each patient, once using a conventional left-handed Macintosh No. 3 laryngoscope and once using a right-handed one, by 25 right-handed and 18 left-handed laryngoscopists. The perpendicular distance from the tip of the maxillary incisor to the flange of blade was measured when the maximum visibility of the glottis was obtained. We compared the blade-tooth distances, chances of directly contacting the tooth, laryngoscopic views and preference of laryngoscopists between the two laryngoscopes. For the right-handed laryngoscopists, the blade-tooth distance increased significantly with the right-handed laryngoscope (P < 0.001). The right-handed laryngoscope was associated with a decreased chance of directly contacting the teeth (P = 0.001). Additionally, it provided a better view than the conventional one (P = 0.005). Conversely, the results were opposite for the left-handed laryngoscopists. In conclusion, when a right-handed laryngoscopist uses a right-handed laryngoscope, a better laryngoscopic view and a reduced chance of blade contact with the teeth can be achieved. It is more reasonable to use dominant hand to hold laryngoscope.


Author Keywords:Laryngoscope; Laryngoscopic Blade; Laryngoscopic View; Laryngoscopy; Left-handed; Right-handed; Teeth
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 7
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.
Part 1,

Effects of Horticultural Counseling Therapy Program on Depression in a Sample of Nigeria Secondary School Adolescents
Joachim Chinweike Omeje, Ncheke Chijioke Damian, Obiageli Josephine Modebelu, Victoria Ocean Adikwu, Ngozi Hope Chinweuba, Mkpoikanke Sunday Otu*
PRIVATE BAG X101, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA, 0001

Abstract:

Background: Depression is a common mental health disorder that is manifested in depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy and poor concentration and is common among adolescents in secondary schools. \nObjectives: To determine the effect of horticultural counseling therapy in a sample of Nigerian adolescents with depression in secondary schools.\nMethod: The study used a pretest-posttest control group design with a sample of 231 secondary school two (SSII) adolescents identified as having depression. Beck Depression Inventory and Horticultural counseling therapy workbook (HCTW) were the materials used in the study. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for data analysis.\nResults: The result obtained in the study showed that horticultural counseling therapy was effective in assisting depressed adolescents to overcome depression.\nConclusions: It is important to integrate horticultural counseling therapy fully into the school systems to enable depressed students cope with the situation and overcome their depression.


Author Keywords:Horticultural counseling therapy program, depression, secondary school adolescents, Nigeria.
ISSN: 00068241 CODEN: BTHLA Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 6
© Copyright 2015, All rights reserved.